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Category: “Colorblindness”

Degrees of Red Deficient Vision

Degrees of Red Deficient Vision

Examples of Degrees of Red Deficient Vision

Examples of degrees of red deficient vision – or any color deficient vision, for that matter – are important for understanding the wide range of possibilities in the perception of color. Some people can have only very mild impairment, while others lack the ability to see one of the primary colors of the RGB system of light.

This red lacewing butterfly from the Tucson Botanic Garden was one of the subjects in the original set of diptychs for the book, “Seeing Color Colorblind.” It makes a very good subject for color studies, because the contrast in color is vivid for people with normal color vision, and the lack of contrast for people with red deficient vision is equally striking in a different way. The following images are arranged from normal color vision to severe red deficient vision.

Note that the color of the leaf changes also. That is because the leaf was not pure green, but contains other colors as well. If red is not seen, the leaf color will appear more pure green. This example perhaps shows the leaf changes better:

degrees of red deficiency
Some degrees of red deficiency

In a future post, I’ll demonstrate degrees of green deficient vision. But here is a quick view, using the same butterfly.

color deficient vision
Some Degrees of Green Deficiency
A Red Dichromat’s Response to the Paperback

A Red Dichromat’s Response to the Paperback

A Red Dichromat’s Response to the Paperbook Book, “Seeing Color Colorblind

My initial attempt to create diptychs that covered a large range of colors, including skin tones, to show the normal-visioned world how someone with a specific type of color deficient vision sees the world, was with my son, who is a red dichromat.

red dichromat's response

We had a fairly easy time working in the RGB color space of projected light on our monitors, working at a distance. We were pleased with that result, which became the Kindle edition of the book.

We both wanted a physical edition, especially so that it could be shared in schools, physicians’ offices, and a whole variety of places where it would be helpful for people to understand the world of color deficient vision. Producing a printed volume presented some very real difficulties for two very different pairs of eyes! Photo books, using ICC profiles for the different print companies I tried, did not work at all with my son’s vision. That surprised me a lot. In the end, the process that worked the best was simple four color printing (CMYK – cyan, magenta, yellow, black, which forms the basis of the reflected light color wheels) in paperback rather than photo book form. The overall number of colors he sees is so limited compared to people with normal vision, the more complex printing simply was not good for this purpose. In the long run, a benefit of this is that the paperback book cost much less to produce and thus is potentially available to a much wider audience.

We both had a sense of accomplishment when the series of diptychs matched to my son’s eyes. But, there remained one issue. The diptych on the cover, which was the exact image included in the interior, did not look at all right to him. That cover was glossy, and it just added more complexity to the visual input. So, we tried the matte cover. That was exactly what his eyes needed! Much to my surprise, I actually like the effect artistically. We finally had achieved a physical edition!

This was my red dichromat’s response when we had the final version:

Great! I hope that the book interests people, as well as maybe teachers, schools, pediatricians and anyone else who’s around or deals with colorblind young people! I remember getting sent to the principal’s office by a teacher who didn’t know any better who sent me to the principal multiple times for coloring things incorrectly – she alleged I was being disobedient, when really I was coloring the best I could based on how I saw things.
The book is great – all the respective pairs of images look the same to me (thanks for the many, many revisions to the Kindle as well as the print versions based on my feedback).
This book will help people (who care) interact with colorblind people who are young, old, and somewhere in between.
While there are several types or kinds of colorblindness, this addresses the most common type, red-green, at its extreme form, which is how I see things!
At minimum, people who read this will hopefully finally realize that color blind people DO see color, they merely see it differently from people with “normal” color vision. It would be an amazing accomplishment if the general public would realize this!
The only thing I can think of to add to the written portions of the book would be to add something to describe how colorblind people have been used for decades for military applications such as locating enemy positions because of the ability to see camouflage amidst nature, and how other governmental agencies use colorblind people for special applications, such as the FAA, etc.
Thanks again, Ma, for taking on this project, doing such a great job with it, and having the patience to make all of the many, many adjustments to the image pairs to get them just right, so that those who might be interested in what colorblindness is and what it really looks like can better understand it and will at least understand that colorblind people DO NOT see things in black and white, like the long out-dated televisions commonly referred to in conversations regarding colorblindness.

I was pleased with my red dichromat’s response. Thank you, Brandt!

Seeing Color

Seeing Color

Seeing Color Colorblind

Seeing color is something that those of us with normal color vision take for granted. But many people do not see the range of colors seen by most people. “Colorblind” has been applied to such people, people with a color deficiency. As my son has said,

“‘colorblind’ as a term is sort of a misnomer in that even extremely colorblind people see colors – they just see them differently than people who are not colorblind. Unfortunately, many people are ignorant regarding this.”

Different kinds and degrees of color deficiencies have been lumped under “colorblindness.” Seeing color is a complex topic because of so many shades of difference.

seeing color
Examples of Color Vision Differences

Most color deficiencies are inherited genetically, as an X-linked recessive trait. The genes that produce the photo pigments in the cones of the retina, required for color vision, are located on the X chromosome. A female has two X chromosomes. If one is defective but the other normal, in most cases she will have normal color vision. Males, on the other hand, have one X chromosome. The Y chromosome has no matching parts that produce photo pigments, so a male who inherits a X chromosome with the defect will be colorblind. Males inherit the X chromosome from their mother, the Y from their father. Females inherit one X chromosome from their mother, and one X chromosome from their father. If a woman’s father is colorblind, she will inherit a color deficient X chromosome from him. If we assume for the moment that the X chromosome she inherits from her mother is normal, the probability that the abnormal X will be passed on to her children is 50%, and the probability that the normal one will be passed on is 50%. Any of her sons have a 50% chance of inheriting their maternal grandfather’s color deficiency through their normal color sighted mother.

That was the situation in my family. My father was colorblind, and I knew early on that any sons of mine had a 50% probability of being colorblind. So, it was no surprise when he was colorblind. I’ve always been glad that they had a close relationship, because they saw the world in the same way and could talk about it. My father laughed about being colorblind. He was a child of the Great Depression, and his father had died when he was three, so I guess there were a lot worse things in his childhood than being colorblind.

Although I knew they both had the same “red-green” colorblindness, until quite recently I really had no idea exactly how they saw the world. It just was, and nothing could be done about it. All of that changed in March of 2015, when EnChroma posted a video on YouTube:



I must have watched that video 20 times in a row the first time I saw it. I had such hope my son could see the world as I saw it. In short order, his grandmother had ordered a pair of Enchroma glasses for him. Here is a description of how these glasses work to help colorblind people see color. My son did not get the “wow” effect from his glasses, but he likes them. He wears them as sunglasses on his daily commutes and other trips. On one trip, he commented that he saw pink in a sunset for the first time ever. So, they do make some difference, but it took a little while for that to come out.

After hoping so much that he could see color the way I do, I had to accept that was not likely to happen in the near future. And for the first time ever, I began to wonder if there were any way that maybe I could see his world. Now it seems odd to me that it took me a lifetime to ask that question, but there it was.

I thought about it for several months, and gradually some possibilities occurred to me. In my digital photography program I had become acquainted with the RGB (red-green-blue) color system. I was also aware of some beautiful old Russian images done in color by shooting three black and white images in rapid succession, using red, green, and blue filters, and then combining the images into one. Those still amaze me. By Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky – from the Library of Congress’ website, Public Domain:

Work of By Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky
Work of By Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky

The more I thought about some of those different things, I began to play with RGB channels. In the spring/summer of 2015 I made three sets of images, each set containing an image as I saw it, and another image as I thought my son might possibly see it, based on what I knew about his color deficiency by that point in time. I knew that in theory the two images in each set should appear the same to him. But, I was very, very surprised when they actually did!! I was happy that I finally had a glimpse into his world, and sad that I did not have the technology to show him mine.

Then, I got very busy with many things, and did not work on more sets until early this year (2016). I’ve done a fair number of these diptychs now, with my son giving me a lot of time to go over them. My father had and my son has a red color deficiency, rather severe. People with a different color deficiency, or a different degree, would not see these images in the same way at all.

Before I show some of the diptychs, I want to show this image of the color wheel for the RGB system of additive light. As you look at it, try to imagine what you might see if red were missing or almost missing. You might want to refer back to it if some of the sets puzzle you.
The following images of the RGB color wheel show how moderate red deficiency and severe red deficiency would affect seeing of the RGB colors:

seeing color colorblind
Normal colors; moderate red deficiency; severe red deficiecy

A few sample diptychs:

The Orange Reds

Seeing color colorblind
Seeing Color Colorblind: Red Lacewing Butterfly

The Pinks/Magentas

seeing color colorblind
Seeing Color Colorblind: Desert Rose

Some other color classes addressed as we worked on diptychs include:

Things We See Not Too Differently: Yellows

Big Surprise: Skin Tones
In retrospect I should have anticipated skin tones, but it took me a little while to accept how I look to my son.

Another Big Surprise: Monotones and Black and White

A Final Video and Thought:

“Sometimes I wish people could see what I saw…” Andrew from this Enchroma video:

I have never heard my son say, “I wish people could see what I saw.” But he has certainly given me a lot of time and help as I have worked on this project, something I felt compelled to try once the idea popped into my head and I realized I had learned tools in photography that might allow me to see the world through his eyes.

This project is far from finished, even in working with the one specific type and degree of color deficiency. Over time I hope to work with other types of color deficiency as well. But should I never get any farther with this, I am happy that at this stage of my life I have learned to see the world through the eyes of my son (and thus, also, my father). Although the technology does not currently exist for him to see the world through my eyes, I have hopes that will happen some time in his lifetime.

That’s what you get from a mother, a daughter, a PhD anthropologist, a board-certified Ob/Gyn, and photographer, interested in seeing color through the eyes of her family. 🙂

ETA: The Kindle edition of “Seeing Color Colorblind” was published at Amazon on April 2, 2016, and is available for $2.99. It can be read on any device with the free Kindle app that can be downloaded at Amazon. The paperback edition was published on May 8, 2016, and is available for $19.99. (People who purchase the paperback may purchase the Kindle version for $0.99 rather than $2.99, thus saving $2.00 on the combination.)

(Originally published 2/20/2016 at Susan Brandt Graham Photography: A Southwest Point of View)